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Web Links to Related Physiology Information and Teaching Resources

Warner Instruments
Warner Instrument Corp. designs and manufactures biomedical products for electrophysiology and the neurosciences. Products include microelectrode amplifiers and voltage clamps, perfusion chambers for imaging and recording, perfusion heating systems, perfusion stepper, glass capillary tubing and microelectrode holders.
New England Journal of Medicine
The Journal of Neuroscience
The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) is the largest coalition of life sciences societies in the United States.
National Institute of Health

Archived Categories:

Cellular Respiration
General Biology
Human Diving Reflex
Stress, Meditation and Vacations.
Stress and Aging.
Making a Case for Vacations.
Effects of phonological similarity on priming in auditory lexical decision.
Lexical Memory.
Lexical Decision Tasks, Semantic Priming and Reading.
The footprints of visual attention in the Posner cueing paradigm revealed by classification images.
Posner’s Attention Model & the Decay Factor.
Models of Attention.
Craik and Lockhart, 1972.
Craik and Tulving, 1975.
Memory and Levels of Processing in Advertising.
Gaze Cueing of Attention.
Do as eye say: Gaze cueing and language in a real-world social interaction.
Measuring attention using the Posner cuing paradigm: the role of across and within trial target probabilities.
Interactive Brain map Infographic from Opencolleges.…
Article about VEP and Multiple sclerosis.
Patient information guide from the University of Pittsburgh Medical which contains information on preparing for an EEG.
An interactive Stroop Test.…
Interdimensional interference in the Stroop effect: uncovering the cognitive and neural anatomy of attention.
The Whole Brain Atlas is a website with descriptions and images of the brain in normal and diseased states.…
Online course for the combined study of psychology and neuroscience.
“The Secret Life of the Brain” available from PBS Online – WNET New York. Links to the history of studying the brain, the three-dimensional anatomy of the brain, mind illusions, brain scans, and presentations about the brain from infancy to the aged.…
Other ways to perform interference tasks.
Cellular Respiration… 
Easy-to-understand animation of electron transport, proton gradient development, and ATP synthesis in mitochondria from a site at St. Olaf College.
Web site from New Mexico State University with information about the process of water movement from plants known as transpiration, and how relative humidity controls the loss of water. An animation of the process is available on the site.
Earthguide website from the CalSpace Program at the University of California San Diego that is an easy to use educational resource for information about the Earth, the oceans, and the environment.…
Instructional multimedia presentation from the Faculty of Science at the University of Alberta covering a variety of topics in science, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
Facts about acid rain from Environment Canada.
Website at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that presents information about the quality standards of ground and drinking water in the United States.
Web site from How Stuff Works that provides a concise explanation of the process of evaporative cooling.
Web page from the National Weather Service with a Heat Index calculator. Enter the air temperature and the percent of relative humidity, and the calculator will determine the temperature that it feels like to the body.
Information about how you can use Inquiry Based Learning.
A mini-course in three dimensional eye movement from the University of Western Ontario.…
Professor Tim Jacob from the School of Biosciences at Cardiff University, UK, presents an excellent set of lecture notes for learning about vision and the eye.
A site for links to the current research in the field of eye movements and EMDR.
Information on saccadic eye movements.
This two part scientific article examines the way light affects the eye and the brain.
This fun site contains information about vision, optical illusions, and many different visual exercises.
Detailed information discussing a variety of different eye movements that can be recorded during an EOG.
How to Improve Proprioception. 
Watch Balance in Action!
American College of Sports Medicine
This website provides information on health and fitness, research in the field of sports medicine, and grant and research initiatives.
Frequent Ventricular Ectopy after Exercise as a Predictor…
Link to news article from the Healing Heart Foundation and abstract of article from the New England Journal of Medicine: “Frequent Ventricular Ectopy after Exercise as a Predictor of Death.” The authors hypothesize that ventricular ectopy (7 or more premature heartbeats per minute) during the recovery phase is a better predictor of cardiac risk than ventricular ectopy during exercise.
Gatorade Sports Science Institute
Compendium of articles on exercise science, sports medicine, performance, nutrition, conditioning, psychology, and more.
Heart Rate Recovery Immediately After Exercise As A Predi…
Link to article in the New England Journal of Medicine: “Heart-Rate Recovery Immediately after Exercise as a Predictor of Mortality.” The authors hypothesize that a delayed fall in the heart rate after exercise might be an important prognostic marker. Recovery of the heart rate after exercise is a function of vagal activity, and a decrease in vagal activity is known to be a cardiac risk factor.…
Information about aerobic fitness and endurance on overall health.
This website provides links to a wide variety of performance tests that can be used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a subject’s fitness.…
The Effects of Aerobic Fitness on Resting Metabolic Rate; Broeder CE, Burrhus KA, Svanevik LS, Wilmore JH; Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin.…
The Effects of Either High-Intensity Resistance or Endurance training on Resting Metabolic Rate; Broeder CE, Burrhus KA, Svanevik LS, Wilmore JH; Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin.
Aerobic fitness does not modulate protein metabolism in response to increased exercise: a controlled trial.
Differences in Resting Metabolic Rate between White and African-American Young Adults. Teresa A. Sharp, Melanie L. Bell, Gary K. Grunwald, Kathryn H. Schmitz, Stephen Sidney, Cora E. Lewis, Kim Tolan, and James O. Hill.
Includes a variety of testing protocols for use with the Aerobic Fitness lab.
The Fitness Test List
This link to “Rob Wood’s Home of Fitness Testing” provides a listing of health, agility, reaction, body position, and anthropometric tests in addition to a complete collection of endurance,strength, and flexibility tests.
General Biology…
A good review of the structure and function of both smooth and striated muscle.…
A page all about the American cockroach, including information about its distribution, biology, and a list of sources for further research.…
Still images of the dissected cockroach ventral nerve cord, and an instructional video illustrating the dissection of the nerve cord and the placement of an extracellular hook electrode to record ventral nerve cord activity.
Three research papers on the specifics of crayfish gut structure, physiology and pharmacology. All three are fairly technical, but serve as excellent starting points for research into the biology of the crayfish digestive system.
A very complete article from 1967 that presents experiments designed to learn about many properties of the ventral nerve cord of the leech.…
A short summary of the cockroach escape mechanism circuitry, including both the sensory and motor parts of the circuit, and how they communicate for effective escape behavior. Included is a schematic diagram of the escape circuit.…
One of three thoughtful and well-research sites looking at the issue of pain perception in invertebrates with a range of conclusions.
The Cockroach Homepage. This page contains links to sources about many aspects of cockroach biology, including an entertaining Cockroach FAQ, and a thorough list of biologists who study cockroaches with links to lists of their publications.
A well-illustrated guide to the dissection of live or prepared crayfish. A good overview of both external and internal crayfish anatomy.…
Still images of the dissected cockroach ventral nerve cord, and an instructional video illustrating the dissection of the nerve cord and the placement of an extracellular hook electrode to record ventral nerve cord activity.
Information about acid rain formation and consequences.
This paper includes a summary of a variant of the cercal sense organs experiment in addition to several other extracellular cockroach recordings that can be part of undergraduate neurophysiology labs. An excellent overview of the use of the cockroach in the neurophysiology teaching laboratory.
A thorough review of invertebrate circulatory systems. Includes a useful bibliography.…
This website, at St. Olaf College in Minnesota, contains many simple animations of biological processes including the variety of transport mechanisms used by membranes.
Interesting photomicrograph of the earthworm nervous system.…
This site reviews more general concepts of digestive system function and control. It focuses primarily on vertebrate, and more specifically, human, digestion.…
This interactive website at reviews the components, functions, and structure of a typical cell membrane and then allows users to construct their own membrane.…
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Postsecondary Education-Programs Institutional Development and Undergraduate Education Service (IDUES).
American Indian Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities.
Alaska Native and Hawaiian Serving Institutions.
Title V: Developing Hispanic-Serving Institutions Program.
Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program.
Title III Part A: Strengthening Institutions Program.
Title III Part B: Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities.
Heart – Great information and graphs for calculating target heart rate and the best way to exercise. – How to take your pulse and figure out heart rates. – Information on training zones and “walking” exercises for good cardiac fitness. – Test your knowledge with quizzes about ECG recordings. – Library of different ECG recordings and information about 12-lead ECGs. – A site dedicated to 12-lead ECG instruction for EMS personnel.
Heart Rate Variability and Baroreflex Sensitivity in Subj…
This article details research undertaken to evaluate heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in a large random sample of subjects without evidence of heart disease, and to estimate the relationship of heart rate behavior to age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors.
Advanced site for using heart sounds to determine diseases.…
Article from Circulation Research on the regulation of stroke volume during submaximal and maximal upright exercise in healthy men.…
A great place to get an in depth lesson on the 12 Lead ECG.
Test your knowledge with quizzes about ECG recordings.
Website known as Medline Plus, operated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, contains a medical encyclopedia, dictionary, health topics, and drug information.
MedlinePlus website with information on over 700 health topics and medications, a medical encyclopedia, and a medical dictionary. Hyperventilation and its clinical implications are discussed here.
University of Michigan site for looking at abnormal heart rhythms.
A site dedicated to 12-lead ECG instruction for EMS personnel.
A website with interactive tutorials, with sound and animation, that covers ECGs and heart sounds including the physiological splitting of the second heart sound (S2).
Paper comparing heart sounds and ECG for diagnostic purposes.
The website for Richard Klanbunde’s text “Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts” covering the topics of arrhythmias, cardiac valve disease, coronary artery disease, edema, heart failure, hypertension, and peripheral artery disease. The Valsalva maneuver is explained here.
A collection of electrocardiograms that are correlated to the coronary diseases they identify, including: blocks, ischemias, and arrhythmias.…
A biomathematical model of cardiac fitness, and the heart rate response to stress testing and its relationship to VO2.
A guide to lead placement and explanation. db=pubmed&uid=1…
An article that discusses the effects of high intensity resistance or endurance training on resting metabolic rate.…
An article that discusses the effects of aerobic fitness on resting metabolic rate.
Links and explanations to all sorts of cardiac rhythms.
“The Six Second ECG: Cardiac Rhythm Simulator” from SkillStat Learning that plays a collection of 25 different of cardiac rhythms in learning or game mode. The site includes tutorials for each recording that help the student learn the characteristics of each rhythm.
Interactive learning simulator game is a perfect resource for any medical professional who is looking to improve their EKG interpretation skills.
A website known as The Auscultation Assistant contains sound bites and explanations of various heart sounds and murmurs; developed by a medical student to assist other medical students.
Human Diving Reflex
Free Diving and Shallow Water Blackout
Article reviews the physics and the physiology of shallow water blackout (latent hypoxia), the conditions that cause it, the physiological changes that take place during it, and ways to prevent it. A good introduction to what is taking place physiologically during a shallow water dive.…
Journal article through Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH.…
Scientific American article on the Diving Reflex.
The Triggering of the Human Diving Response
This article concludes that the diving reflex can occur in a warm environment as long as there is a difference between the ambient air and water temperatures; cold stimulation is more effective on the upper part of the face; and while breathing, cold stimulation of extremities dominates over stimulation of the upper face and produces tachycardia, the opposite occurs in apnea.
Kidney Physiology 
From Cardif in the UK, a web-based guide to the kidney and its function as relates to first year Medical and Dental students.
National Kidney Foundation.
Understanding Urinalysis.
course notes for Osmoregulation.
Chemistry Comes Alive website.…
Click the links at the bottom of the page to open directories to other sites with colorful graphics of systems, organs, tissues, and cells. Compiled at The IUPS Physiome Project in The Bioengineering Institute at the University of Auckland.…
Animation accompanying the second edition of Essential Chemistry that easily explains how buffers neutralize hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.…
This website, Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry from Jon Wiley and Sons, Inc., provides interactive animations and innovative tutorials for learning difficult biochemical processes.…
Presentation from Wisconsin Online courses in nursing that illustrate the purpose of acid /base balance in the body, and the causes and effects of acid/base imbalances.…
Another presentation from Wisconsin Online courses in nursing that illustrate the purpose of acid /base balance in the body, and the causes and effects of acid/base imbalances.
YouTube video demonstration of conductivity.
Plant Biology
A very nice site that uses photo micrographs of a plant cell to allow students to explore sub-cellular organelles and plant cell structure.
Web HUMAN Physiology Simulation
HUMAN is a FORTRAN program that models the integrated physiology of the human organism in both health and disease. This version was written by Tom Coleman at The University of Mississippi Medical Center and has since been maintained and updated at Skidmore College. The model covers the major organ systems, including cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, endocrine, nervous and alimentary. With each iteration of the program, approximately 137 user accessible physiological variables are computed and updated. In running a simulation, the user may manipulate one or more parameters from a list of 67 alterable physiological, environmental and clinical factors.
Robert Downey Jr gives boy a bionic Iron Man Arm. 
What is Biofeedback? 
The Association of Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback.…
Read about an arm wrestling robot and how scientists are using it to study neuromuscular control.
Website at How Stuff Works that with the information on the metabolism and physiology of muscles.…
Animations and information about the different types of joints in the body. One of many pages from the BBC that provides concise information and animations about the human body and mind.
Paper about the effects of physostigmine on the earthworm body wall.
A comprehensive list of muscle movements in the human body. Each articulation has links to the list of muscles involved in each function, digital movies of the exercises that involve the listed muscles, and anatomical drawings of the muscles involved and their location in the body.
Website at the University of Michigan that contains concise definitions and QuickTime movies of various types of muscle movements.
Website at the University of Michigan that contains concise definitions and QuickTime movies of specialized foot movements like dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.

Robert Downey Jr gives boy a bionic Iron Man Arm.
Images and videos of CTS.
The first article in a series by Zill and Moran in the Journal of Experimental Biology on the responses of campaniform sensilla to external and muscle-generated forces. Other articles in the series include the studies of campaniform sensilla activity during reflexes and walking.
Seasonal changes in the Giant Squid axon APs.
This web page from HealthCentral explains the significance of the nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test, and provides links to information about diseases that affect NCV.
This web page at the MDA provides information about the neuromuscular diseases included in MDA programs. This list includes: muscular dystrophies; motorneuron problems; inflammatory myopathies; diseases of the neuromuscular junction; metabolic diseases; and more.
Web page on neuromuscular junction disorders from The Merck Manuals On-Line Medical Library. Links on this site also lead to all five on-line versions of the Merck medically related manuals.
NEURON is a simulation environment for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons. It provides tools for conveniently building and using models of neurons and networks that are numerically sound and computationally efficient. It is particularly well suited to problems that are closely linked to experimental data.
An inflamed sciatic nerve is a very common cause of pain in humans. A number of links covering all aspects of human sciatic nerve anatomy and pathology can be found at this site.…
Why Psych majors need neuroscience – a free online course on the combined study of psychology and neuroscience offered by MIT.…
This site at NOVA Online provides insight into the Stroop test that mountain climbers undergo at high altitudes to insure that they are healthy enough to continue with their climb. A Stroop test is available for online testing.
Advanced experiments on neural magnetic fields using Earthworm APs.
The EMG Manual provides a simple approach for a better understanding of EMG and nerve conduction studies. Some of the relevant topics covered in the manual include: nerve conduction setups for various motor and sensory paths; pathological processes; and, disease characteristics.
Neuroscience for Kids
This site also from The University of Washington is targeted at kids. Nevertheless, it contains some good graphics and lots of online resources.
Virtual Hospital: The Human Brain
This page is a great resource for brain anatomy. It has many photos, diagrams and of course more links.
Website at How Stuff Works – information on the anatomy and physiology of the lungs.
Explanation of the variety of pulmonary function tests commonly performed and health conditions that they can identify.
A section from a textbook that explains the parameters of oxygen pressure, saturation, and content.
Comprehensive information on blood gases, the physiology of gas exchange, lung functions, and acid-base balance.
Page at Medline Plus on the National Library of Medicine website that provides comprehensive information about hemoglobin.
Background information and normal values for a typical blood gas analysis. Other pages at this website are readily available by going here.
Information on metabolic rates for varieties of exercise, nutrition, and fitness.
Information on the principles, history, clinical applications, limitations, and references for oximetry and co-oximetry.
Great clinical information on Pulse Oximetry and how it works.
Detailed paper with much information on history and processes of photosynthesis.
A link to a valuable and comprehensive article called “The Photosynthetic Process” that covers everything from the classification of photosynthetic organisms to global warming and green house gases.
A website from Michigan State University that clearly diagrams the reactions of the Calvin Cycle.…
A website that contains a nice animation of the three phases of the Calvin Cycle.
Emotion, Attention and the Startle Reflex Attitude.
Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand.
Emotion, Novelty and the Startle Reflex.
Prepulse Inhibition Tests for Psychological Disorders.
Prepulse Inhibition in Psychiatric Disorders, besides schizophrenia.
How a polygraph test works.
Control of Attention Shifts between Vision and Audition in Human Cortex.
Comparative study of visual and auditory reaction time of hands and feet in males and females.…
Study done in Australia about female and male athlete response time.…
Animation illustrating a simple reflex arc from the text Discover Biology by Cain et al; W.W. Norton and Co.…
Website from Wisconsin On-Line that illustrates and animates a two neuron knee-jerk reflex; it also includes on-line quizzes on the topic.
Article about COPD. 

YouTube video comparing restrictive and obstructive diseases.…
Website includes graphs, VCO2/VO2 calculations and values, how-tos, and links to exercise physiology articles and websites.
From the Virtual Hospital site, teaching files for respiratory anatomy and physiology.
This article shows that the kinetics of oxygen uptake, as measured by breath by breath techniques, are determined at the onset of exercise rather than at the peak of exercise.
Website devoted to exercise regimens, training, triathlons, VO2Max testing, blogs, etc.
RER and metabolic rates in a Lizard.
Nutrient Metabolism and how it relates to RER.
Website at “How Stuff Works” with information on the anatomy and physiology of the lungs.
Article on the factors that cause variation in basal metabolic rate: fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and circulating thyroxine.
Links to an article about oxygen consumption, brain metabolism and respiration of goldfish during temperature changes with reference to lowered temperatures.
Simple BMR calculator that helps determine daily caloric needs using the Harris Benedict Equation.…
Article about COPD.
A PubMed article relating to diet, growth and metabolism in goldfish.
New England Journal of Medicine article about familial dependence of the Resting Metabolic Rate.
YouTube video comparing restrictive and obstructive diseases.
Psychological Properties of color.
How humans react to color.
Information about the color red. 
Site with more information on fEMGs. or 
List of all muscles and exercises that target specific groups.
Using targeted muscle training to gain strength and resilience in muscles.
Upper limb H reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials modulated by movement.
A VEP test.…
Webvision – The Organization of the Retina and Visual System – detailed information about VEPs.
Site with more information on fEMGs.
A report on sight, hearing and smell from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute that contains easy to read articles on these senses.
How a polygraph test works.
Link to the article “Improved Arterial Compliance by a Novel Advanced Glycation End-Product Crosslink Breaker” which discusses the effects of drug that breaks the crosslinks between collagen fibers in aging arteries, thus restoring vascular compliance.
Article from the Hypertension that defined the relationship between the digital (finger) volume pulse and the peripheral (arm) pressure pulse making it easier to determine arterial stiffness and reflection indices.
Article from Clinical Science that explains the correlation between the index of arterial stiffness from the digital volume pulse and the standard measure of arterial stiffness, the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity.
Flashing checkerboard used in VEP tests.

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