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Animal Muscle

Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, DT-475 , A-BST-100
Description: Frog Muscle – How the muscle responds to the addition of weight. Recruitment and fatigue are also looked at.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a frog leg to extract the gastrocnemius muscle of the lower limb. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the muscle and record muscle twitch. 
 3.	Students will understand the correlation between the stimulus, the muscle twitch amplitude, and the effect of weight on muscle contractions. 
 4.	Students will test afterloading, supporting the weight before contraction; and preloading, hanging the weight on the muscle without support before the contraction. 
 5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
 1.	be able to successfully excise the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog’s leg. 
 2.	have a better understanding of electrical stimulation of the muscle and the equipment used to perform such stimulation. 
 3.	gain an understanding of muscle stimulation and contraction (twitch) and how they relate to each other. 
 4.	record muscle twitches from the gastrocnemius, test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions 
 5.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
 6.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , A-BST-100
Description: Frog skeletal muscle, looking at recruitment, summation and tetanus with direct muscle stimulation.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a frog leg to extract the gastrocnemius muscle of the lower limb. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the muscle and record muscle twitch. 
 3.	Students will understand the correlation between the stimulus, muscle twitch, and the strength of the stimulation on muscle contraction. 
 4.	Students will test summation and tetanus by repeatedly stimulating the muscle. 
 5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
      1.  be able to successfully excise the gastrocnemius muscle of a frog’s leg.
 2.	have a better understanding of electrical stimulation of the muscle and the equipment used to perform such stimulation. 
 3.	gain an understanding of muscle stimulation and contraction (twitch) and how they relate to each other. 
 4.	successfully record muscle twitches from the gastrocnemius and correlate the reactions to stimulation to summation and tetanus. 
 5.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
 6.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , A-BST-100
Description: Frog heart, looks at contractions during various experimental situations including temperature, ligature, and pharmaceuticals.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a frog to expose the heart. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the heart and will record cardiac contractions. 
 3.	Students will understand the correlation between exogenous stimulus and heart muscle response. 
 4.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal heart rhythms. 
 5.	Students will test different parameters with regard to cardiac muscle function: 
◦	cold temperature. 
◦	epinephrine. 
◦	atropine. 
◦	isolation of the ventricle. 
 6.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to successfully isolate the frog heart.
2.	have a better understanding of electrical stimulation of the heart muscle and the equipment used to perform such stimulation. 
3.	gain an understanding of normal cardiac muscle contraction. 
4.	stimulate and record cardiac muscle contractions to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
5.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
6.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, DT-475 , STB-125
Description: Rat uterus – smooth muscle reactions.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a female rat to excise the uterus to be able to examine smooth muscle contractions. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to record smooth muscle contractions. 
 3.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. 
 4.	Students will test different parameters with regard to uterine muscle function: 
◦	methergine. 
◦	acetylcholine. 
◦	atropine. 
◦	epinephrine. 
◦	stretch and tension. 
 5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
 1.  be able to successfully isolate the rat uterus.
 2.	activate and record uterine muscle contractions to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
 3.	gain an understanding of rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. 
 4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
 5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , STB-125
Description: Rat intestine. Looks at slow contractions of the intestinal muscles.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a rat to be able to examine smooth muscle contractions. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to record smooth muscle contractions. 
 3.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. 
 4.	Students will test different parameters with regard to uterine muscle function: 
◦	acetylcholine. 
◦	atropine. 
◦	epinephrine. 
◦	serotonin,
◦	stretch and tension. 
 5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to record the spontaneous contractions of the intestine.
2.	describe any qualitative differences in the contractions produced by Acetylcholine, Epinephrine and other pharmaceuticals. 
3.	understand the difference between excitation and inhibition
4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, IWIRE-B3G , C-ISO-PN3
Description: Frog electrocardiogram.

Goals

1.	Students will dissect a frog to expose the heart. 
2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the heart and will record cardiac contractions to look at an ECG. 
3.	Students will understand the correlation between external stimuli and heart muscle response. 
4.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal heart rhythms. 
5.	Students will test different parameters with regard to cardiac muscle function and ECG recordings: 
◦	cold temperature. 
◦	warm temperature.
◦	epinephrine. 
◦	acetylcholine. 
6.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to successfully isolate the frog heart.
2.	gain an understanding of normal cardiac muscle contraction and normal amphibian ECG waves.
3.	record cardiac muscle ECG waves to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302
Description: Crayfish heart, looks at contractions during various experimental situations including temperature, ligature, and pharmaceuticals.

Goals

1.	Students will dissect a crayfish to expose the heart. 
2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to record cardiac contractions. 
3.	Students will understand the correlation between eternal stimuli and heart muscle response. 
4.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal heart rhythms. 
5.	Students will test different parameters with regard to cardiac muscle function: 
◦	cold temperature. 
◦	serotonin.
◦	GABA.
6.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to successfully isolate the crayfish heart.
2.	gain an understanding of normal cardiac muscle contraction. 
3.	record cardiac muscle contractions to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , C-BNC-PN2
Description: Can use mussels, clams, oysters or scallops for this lab looking at the contraction of the byssal muscle under various experimental conditions.

Goals

1.	Students will dissect a marine mussel (Mytilus sp.) to expose the byssal retractor muscle.
2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the retractor muscle and will record muscle contractions to look at muscle twitch and responses to stimuli. 
3.	Students will be able to successively increase stimulation to cause changes in response of the muscle.
4.	Students will deliver differing doses of neurotransmitters to see the effects on an actively contracting muscle:
◦	acetylcholine.
◦	serotonin. 
5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to determine the relationship between the strength of the stimulus and the response of the muscle.
2.	be able to measure the amplitude of contraction produced in a muscle that is stimulated with a long current pulse, and repeated pulses delivered at progressively higher frequencies.
3.	understand the relationship between summation and tetanus.
4.	observe the effects of acetylcholine and serotonin, the neurotransmitters that effect contraction and relaxation of the anterior byssal retractor muscle.
5.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise and feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302
Description: Crayfish intestinal movement. An invertebrate alternative to the rat intestine lab.

Goals

1.	Students will dissect a crayfish abdomen to expose the gut and intestines.
2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to dose the intestine with different drugs and will record muscle contractions to observe responses both type and concentration of drug. 
3.	Students will deliver differing doses of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters to see the effects on an actively contracting muscle:
◦	acetylcholine.
◦	epinephrine.
◦	GABA. 
4.	Measure and understand contraction amplitudes and durations.
5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to record the spontaneous contractions of the intestine.
2.	describe any qualitative differences in the contractions produced by Acetylcholine, Epinephrine and GABA. 
3.	understand the difference between excitation and inhibition
4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , C-BNC-PN2 , C-BNC-SE
Description: Uses frog gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve to look at recruitment, summation and tetanus.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect a frog leg to extract the sciatic nerve and the muscles of the lower limb (either the gastrocnemius or tibialis anterior). 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the nerve and muscles, and record compound action potentials from both. 
 3.	Students will understand the correlation between nerve stimulus and muscle responses. 
 4.	Students will test synaptic delay between nerve and muscle compound action potentials. 
 5.	Students will test stimulus frequency, fatigue, and myoneural blocking.
 6.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
 1.	be able to successfully excise the sciatic nerve and muscles of a frog’s leg. 
 2.	have a better understanding of electrical stimulation of nerve fibers and the equipment used to perform such stimulation. 
 3.	gain an understanding of both nerve and muscle compound action potentials and how they relate to each other. 
 4.	record compound action potentials from the sciatic nerve and lower limb muscles to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
 5.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
 6.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, FT-302 , STB-125
Description: Earthworm gut contractions.

Goals

 1.	Students will dissect an earthworm to be able to examine smooth muscle contractions. 
 2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to record smooth muscle contractions. 
 3.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. 
 4.	Students will test different parameters with regard to smooth muscle function: 
◦	acetylcholine. 
◦	serotonin
◦	epinephrine. 
5.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
 1.        be able to successfully isolate earthworm gut
 2.	activate and record uterine muscle contractions to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
 3.	gain an understanding of rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. 
 4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
 5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Included with:
Lab Equipment Required: IX-TA, IWIRE-B3G , C-ISO-PN3
Description: Study of the crayfish electrocardiogram.

Goals

1.	Students will dissect a crayfish to expose the heart. 
2.	Students will assemble the equipment needed to be able to stimulate the heart and will record cardiac contractions to look at an ECG. 
3.	Students will understand the correlation between external stimuli and heart muscle response. 
4.	Students will gather data corresponding to normal heart rhythms. 
5.	Students will test different parameters with regard to cardiac muscle function and ECG recordings: 
◦	cold temperature. 
◦	warm temperature.
◦	epinephrine. 
◦	acetylcholine. 
6.	Students will continue to be successful at using the LabScribe software to move cursors, analyze data, record data to the Journal, and add functions to the Analysis window. 

Outcomes

Students who have successfully completed this exercise will:
1.	be able to successfully isolate the frog heart.
2.	gain an understanding of normal cardiac muscle contraction and normal crayfish ECG waves.
3.	record cardiac muscle ECG waves to test a variety of hypotheses and reach scientific conclusions. 
4.	have used the functions available in the Analysis window to determine values necessary for this exercise. 
5.	feel comfortable transferring data to the Journal and interpreting that data to answer questions about their recordings. 
Updated on April 18, 2021

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